By Zulfiqar Shah-Neither languages, nor nations are pure. We together are inter-woven. This is the second foundation for the contemporary globalization. Anglicans are colonized in North America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and Europe. Spanish, French, Portuguese-Dutch are colonized in South America, North America, Africa, and Asia; linguistic Slav connectivity with East Europe and Asia, Indo-European linguistic connectivity of Asia, Europe, North and South America, and Africa are sheds of cultural globalization. Sindhi, linguistically and ethnically are merged in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Our historical merger is in Europe, especially in Eastern Europe, Italy, Greece, France, and Germany by Sinti (Sindhi) people. They are also called Roma people, because when Sindhi migrated to Europe, they first stayed in Rome centuries ago. They also stayed in Middle East in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kurdistan in Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Armenia, Syria and Jordon; in Eurasia particularly in Russia; and in Far-East. This Sindhi migration belongs to the era when Sindh, Balochistan, and Siraiki southern Punjab of today were Sindh – a country. Sindhi migration in modern age of human history was in Africa, and some above mentioned parts of Asia. A few Sindhi villages and settlements are in Bangladesh; most of these are centuries old and submerged there. Sindhi are submerged in Central Asian countries, Iran and Afghanistan. Arians are colonized in Sindh of above mentioned era, northern and central India, and later on in Europe particularly Germany and Austria.
Sindhi, Persian and English have remained official languages of Sindh; this is the linguistic aspect of globalization. Sindhi and English are official language of Sindh today, along with English.
Iran means Arian land or nation. The political seat of Arians historically has remained Kabul and ethnic Gajar people of Iran. Anglo-Sexans of central Europe especially Germany and adjoining areas, invaded England, caused ouster of Englanders towards island of Ireland, which later on become Irish people. Germanic tribes migrated to Roman Empire as laborer, and according to Arnold J. B. Toynbee, the Germanic tribes destroyed the Roman Empire, which he mentions as ‘external proletariat’.
Migrations in human history have important contours. The slave trade from African towards Europe and northern America was an involuntary migration of Negroes there; and in Middle East, however the volunteer migration of African in Sindh of above mentioned era and later on, submergence of Arabs and Hebrews (Jews) in Sindh, and in the northern, central, southeastern and southwestern India of today; Arabs in Spain, and eastern Europe especially the Bosnia through invasions; submergence of Mongols in northeastern and central Afghanistan, northern Punjab in Pakistan, northern India and Iraq; settlement of Punjabis, Sindhi and Rajasthani in Indonesia, and Cambodia are the facts of history. Likewise, Tamil, Tibetan, and Bhutani had historical and recent submergence with Sri Lanka, India and Nepal respectively. Ethnic Mongols and slightest submergence of Koreans is also there in China. China, unlike other civilizations and cultures, has historically remained isolated with reference to ethnic, linguistic and cultural globalization. Great Wall of China is the militaristic expression of it. The slightest submergence of Korean in India; the slightest submergence of Nepali, Tibetan and Burmese (Myanmar) as well as some south Indian Sindh together with ethnic merger of all nations within and beyond nation-state ‘nation’ perspective contemporarily are the foundation of linguistic, sub-ethnic and cultural globalization across the world, combined with the communication revolution. Communication revolution is a contribution of USA in terms of invention of internet and computer, and Russia inclusive of previous USSR states for space technology.
Sindh contributed in urbanization, urban planning inclusive of waste management, inventing digit ‘Zero’, wheal and weaving of cotton and silk to the human civilization; Euphrates and Mesopotamia (Iraq) contributed laws and constitution; Egypt contributed in mathematics and architecture. Maya civilization of South America contributed calendars, and Chinese Yellow River civilization contributed paper for writing and gun powder for firework. Iran although not a civilization, contributed whine to the world. Sindhi-Baloch fishermen of Karachi, in later era, contributed subsea swimming that can be called subsea journey and is well documented in the poetry of Shah Abdul Lateef Bhittai in his male Hero Moriro. His another Hero (male) is Rai Diach. Rest of the themes of his poetry and philosophy is based on heroines (female). Rumi (Sufi saint and poet philosopher) of Turkey is connected with Bhittai of Sindh through Iran, and Khusro of Turkey, who did poetry in Urdu, is connected with Nizamuddin Aullia (saint) of India. Bhittai himself is Sufi, poet philosopher and Saint. In Sindh and Balochistan title of ‘Saint’ is virtually, philosophically and religiously equal to the order in Christianity.
Salafism has differences with the status of ‘saint’ from religious point of view in terms of Islamic jurisprudence. A major difference between Indian as well as Punjabis of Pakistan and Sindhi, Balochistani and Siraiki is that Indian and Punjabi Muslims do not allow women in the shrines of Sufi saints. This is because of influence by Salafism. However, Sufi Salafi, a Sindhi addition in Salafism school of thought, has relatively more acceptability of Sufi saints with reference to religious aspect. Sufi Salafi term is coined by Shah Abdul Lateef Bhittai for that sub-school of thought. This, an addition of Sufi Salafi in Salafism by Sindh will help world to appropriately counter the challenge posed by terrorism in the name of Islam. The international terrorist outfits belong to Salafi sect. Salafi are a tiny minority among Muslim. Maulana Asadullah Bhutto, pervious Amir (President) of Jama’at –e-Islami Pakistan – Sindh Chapter and Naib Amir (Vice President) Jama’at –e-Islami Pakistan is Sufi Salafi. Sindh and Balochistan feel pleasure that the lands have contributed such sons and daughters in the fold of various religion-cum-sect based political parties, who can really connect political, social and theological doctrines of the sect with the challenges of the contemporary world and civilization especially fighting terrorism claimed to be in the name of Islam. It is auspicious that Jama’at-e-Islami, Pakistan recognized Indus civilization by hoisting flag of Ajrak, the cultural icon of Indus civilization having capital in Moen Jo Daro, on Minar-e-Pakistan-the symbol of Pakistan. Sindh and Balochistan, beyond the diversity of political thoughts and actions, always welcome the acceptance of Indus civilization by any ideology, school of thought, religion, sect or social group.
Wars are fourth tier for the globalization and contemporary civilization. Iran and Sparta war was the first inter-continental war that was waged for one hundred years. Sindh sent its Elephant warriors as military support to Iran. Sindh, with Buddhist majority and Hindu rule, sent military in the Iran war against Arab rule based in Baghdad (Iraq). Mohammad bin Qasim did not wedged war on orders by Hajaj bin Yousif because of Islam, but it was in a bid to revenge Sindh support to Iran.
Emperor Ashoka, born in Patli Putar (Patna) in Bihar, India was Prince of Indus Kingdoms seated in previous Hazara Division of Khyber-Pakhtunkhuwa in Pakistan, which were submerged by him into united India that is called Akhand Bharat. “Spread of Buddhism” is contribution of Ashoka besides uniting South Asian nations into Empire.
Chankya, who was teacher of statecraft and politics at Taxila University, was teacher of Ashoka. Chanakya is claimed by South Indians as well as by Sindhi. His ethnicity is still unknown. Chanakya migrated to Punjab temporarily, after his father migrated to Patna of today. Ashoka was given tough fight by Orissa (Kalinga of that time) state of today’s India.
Jenghiz (Changez) Khan, the Mongol, and his offspring invaded China, Afghanistan, Iraq, Central Asian countries, Sindh, Balochistan, Punjab, and India. They caused devastations and war damages to three civilizations Yellow River, Indus, and Mesopotamia. Urdu language is the only contribution of Mongols, who became “Mogul in Afghanistan” after invading Kabul; later on they submerged in Afghanistan, like in Sindh, India and some parts of Central Asia. In Sindh, majority of submerged Moguls is called Mogul and Agra because they invaded Sindh as well as migrated to Sindh from Afghanistan and India. Those who hailed from Agra in India mostly use word Agra in their Zaat and those who hailed from Afghanistan are called Moguls; however some of the offspring of 1947 refugees are also known as Mogul. They do not speak Sindhi.
Alexander invaded Nile Civilization in Africa (The land of Pharaoh – Egypt and Libya); Mesopotamia in Middle East; Iran; and Sindh that was consisting today’s Sindh, Balochistan, Kandahar, and Siraiki districts of southern Punjab. Hundreds of years ago, Punjab was having border skirmishes / conflict with Sindh over Siraiki areas, which form Siraiki district in today’s Pakistani Punjab, and Pashtun areas of today’s Balochistan. Punjab, having capital between Taxila and Islamabad at that time welcomed Alexander and voluntarily joined Alexander’s Army. Sindh appealed other subcontinent nations for support against Alexander, which got no response.
Arab-Kurd-Turk led Caliphates and Ottoman Empire, known as Fatimid while based in Egypt, was having Jew Prime Minister; however the invasions and wars, and indulgence in crusades, put the foundation of united Europe. Foundations of continental unity and politics in Europe are laid in the crusades. Meanwhile, Navy is the contribution by Emir Muawiya of Islamic Caliphate. Formalizing diplomacy is another contribution of Caliphates and Ottoman Empires.
Urdu language (Mogul Indian) as well as title words like Czar (Russian) and Cesar (Roman) and Qaiser (Iranian) are examples of the linguistic globalization of wars by Empires. The wars that were between and among the nations of continents have contributed in internationalization. Julius Cesar’s invasion of Egypt and Czar’s invasion of Central Asia, and war with Afghanistan and Finland introduced Eurasian culture in Central Asia. Nursing is an internationalization initiative of the First and Second Word Wars besides foundations of the League of Nations, which later on became United Nations. Sindh that took part in the Second World War was not taken aboard like other participants of the Second World War for the process of United Nations. World Bank and International Monitory Fund (IMF) is the result of the world wars. North Atlantic Treaty Alliance (NATO) is the beginning of globalization and of contemporary civilization; and ISAF is the military addition to the contemporary civilization.
Shah is Sindhi refugee journalist, analyst and activist currently staying in Delhi, India